Ground Water Management and Ownership

      The duration of shaking that resulted in the catastrophic damage caused by the Kobe Earthquake was less than 20 seconds. However, the intensity of shaking experienced in the urban Kobe area was so great that the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) had to redefine the seismic intensity level of 7 to incorporate the severity of the damage seen in and around the city of Kobe. Due to the huge impact this earthquake had on human lives, the societal system, infrastructures, economy, etc., extensive studies have been conducted, not only in seismic and earthquake engineering fields but also in social sciences and other multidisciplinary fields, to understand the cause of the damage and also to provide tools & solutions to reduce future seismic risk when such strong earthquakes occur. Examples of seismic and earthquake engineering studies are given below to illustrate how they can help in understanding the cause of the damage

        The dominant method of artificial recharge is through the use of civil structures (such as percolation tank, check dams, recharge shafts etc) that arrest or slow down surface runoff, under
suitable hydro-geological and hydrologic conditions. Some states such as A.P., Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh have implemented few schemes for construction of these structures at scattered locations. Another method involves creation of additional bank storage in the flood plains of perennial rivers by withdrawal of ground water during non-monsoon season and facilitating recharge/infiltration of a fraction of floodwater during rainy season. Currently, few pilot project studies have been done on the river bank storage enhancement by CGWB and other agencies

 What is the magnitude of annual potential recharge in the country? A study by Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) “National Perspective Plan for Recharge to Ground Water by Utilising Surplus Monsoon Runoff, CGWB, 1996” has indicated that the average monsoon runoff in the river basins of country is about 1548 BCM, of which non-committed surface water available for recharge is about 872 BCM. (Annexure 2.2). Out of this 872 BCM, a part can be stored in the sub-surface vadose zone (i.e. the saturation zone of the river basins up to 3 m below ground level), the scope for which has been estimated at about 214 BCM. In 2002, the Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Ground Water in India was prepared by the CGWB taking into consideration feasible areas for artificial

Source : ASDMA

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